Originally Posted on 09/12/2018 @ 4:45 pm EDT
by Steven Warrenfeltz
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For the last seven years, this website has been informing people about the many ways gold nanoparticles offer a better way to treat cancer than today's methods.
Gold Nanoparticles are non-toxic, bio-compatible, and it has been proven in many research studies that they can be made to attack and kill ONLY cancer cells, so in most cases there are no life-threatening side-effects associated with this research.
Below is a glimpse into what you'll find in this issue:
The medical research articles below have been summarized to make the subject matter more understandable, with each summary you'll find direct links to the original articles and/or research reports.
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common form of Pancreatic Cancer, and unfortunately, it's also extremely aggressive and difficult to treat.
Despite medicine's knowledge of the PDAC tumor biology, the prognosis of this form of cancer remains poor.
80-90% of patients that have the disease are usually surgically incurable because it is often found during later stages of growth.
In addition, currently, only the complete surgical removal of the tumor is the only chance a patient has to escape this disease's deadly mortality rate.
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumors defend themselves against its host by creating a fibrous tissue that restricts blood-flow, and help it to spread to other areas of the body.
The traditional chemotherapy treatment for Pancreatic Cancer is a drug called Gemcitabine, however, due to the defenses of PDAC this drug often barely makes a dent in killing the cancer cells.
That is why researchers at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, in Beijing, China, have designed a new way of attacking Pancreatic Cancer (PDAC).
In the study, researchers designed a pH-responsive gold-based nanosystem that 'Re-Educates' cancer cells to help the chemotherapy drug 'Gemcitabine' work better.
The first graphic below shows how the researchers constructed the multi-layered gold nanoparticles.
From left to right, the gold nanoparticle is first coated with an acid (MUA) and two polymers (mPEG-d-PEI) that help to make the nanoparticles more stable in liquid.
Next, a non-chemotherapy drug called All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA) is added to the nanoparticle to 're-educate' the nucleus of the cancer cell to make it stop the production of its fibrous defenses.
The last stage of the gold nanoparticle-based system consisted of adding a protein called 'HSP47' (Heat-Shock Protein 47) and siRNA (small interfering RNA) these two molecules were added to help break-up the cancer cell's defenses so that blood-flow and drug absorption could be restored.
After the gold nanoparticles entered the bloodstream and found the targeted cancer cells, they were absorbed by the cancer cell through Endocytosis.
Once the multi-layered, gold nanoparticles were inside the cancer cell, the research was carried out in two phases.
First, the high PH-levels (acidic) found inside a cancer cell deteriorated the gold-based nanoparticles, which in turn released the ATRA, HSP47, and siRNA.
The ATRA moved to the nucleus which is also known as the brain of a cell, once inside the nucleus, it started the cell's re-education to make it stop creating the fibrous defenses that restrict blood flow to the pancreas.
While the HSP47 and siRNA move to destroy the remaining fibrous tissues in and around the pancreas.
After the Pancreatic Ductal AdenoCarcinoma (PDAC) Cells had been ‘Re-Educated’ and Bloodflow returns to the Pancreas, phase 2 of the research was started.
The second phase of the study involved administering the common chemotherapy drug for pancreatic cancer 'Gemcitabine.'
Ultimately, the research found that their gold based multi-layered nanoparticles were successful in suppressing Pancreatic Cancer Cells (PDAC), which allowed Gemcitobine to be more effective in reducing the size of pancreatic tumors in the living specimens.
One of the ingredients that cancer cells use to metastasize (spread) is called 'Actin Filament.'
Actin Filaments are an essential cytoskeletal cellular tissue, usually these filaments help our cells move, unfortunately, cancer cells use Actin Filaments against us in helping it to spread collectively.
Cancer cells commonly move together to metastasize, but for this to happen it requires the contraction of Actin Filaments and the neighboring cells junction proteins.
In this next study from Georgia Tech, a group of researchers experimented with Gold NanoRods to try to stop cancer cells from using Actin Filaments and cell junction proteins from performing this action.
In the first graphic below, it shows the collective migration of cancer cells as they are attached and move together by cellular proteins and Actin Filaments.
The next graphic below illustrates how gold nano-rods and near-infrared light inhibited the cancer cells migration by disrupting the functions of the Actin Filaments and cell junction proteins.
The researchers state the following about the research:
"... these results indicate possible functions of the AuNR treatments in regulating and remodeling the actin filaments and cell junction proteins, which contribute to decreasing cancer cell collective migration."
This last report is about a new gold nanoparticle design that will be used in cancer research in the future.
The research comes to us from the University of Science and Technology, in Wuhan, China, where scientists have created a near-infrared light-triggered (NIR) gold nanostar.
The diagram below shows you how they designed the new nanoparticle.
In the first stage of development, researchers attached a molecule called CB to the gold nanostar.
CB is added to the nanoparticle to help stabilize the nanostar when it is in liquid, plus CB will encapsulate a naturally derived anti-cancer drug called Camptothecin (CPT).
Camptothecin (CPT) is derived from the bark and stem of a native tree in China called Camptotheca or 'Happy Tree,' it's been used as a natural anti-cancer drug in Traditional Chinese Medicine since 1966.
Expectations are that once the gold nanostars are inside a cancer cell, the 'near-infrared light' (NIR) will be focused on the loaded CB-CPT Gold NanoStars causing the nanostars to heat up, which will release the drug and kill cancer.
Hopefully, the new gold nanostars will be a success in future research, I'll keep you posted when/if I see any research on the subject.
To learn more about Gold Nanoparticles and how their distinct qualities help kill cancer; 'click here', on the page you’ll learn all there is to know about the research.
Thank You for your Time.
Take Care & God Bless,